Double Declining Balance Method DDB Formula + Calculator

Double Declining Balance Method DDB Formula + Calculator

double declining balance method

However, the final depreciation charge may have to be limited to a lesser amount to keep the salvage value as estimated. Financial accounting applications of declining balance are often linked to income tax regulations, which allow the taxpayer to compute the annual rate by applying a percentage multiplier to the straight-line rate. For instance, if an asset’s estimated useful life is 10 years, the straight-line rate of depreciation is 10% (100% divided by 10 years) per year.

  • Every year you write off part of a depreciable asset using double declining balance, you subtract the amount you wrote off from the asset’s book value on your balance sheet.
  • As a hypothetical example, suppose a business purchased a $30,000 delivery truck, which was expected to last for 10 years.
  • So, if a company shells out $15,000 for a truck with a $5,000 salvage value and a useful life of five years, the annual straight-line depreciation expense equals $2,000 ($15,000 minus $5,000 divided by five).
  • Deductions are permitted to individuals and businesses based on assets placed in service during or before the assessment year.

For reporting purposes, accelerated depreciation results in the recognition of a greater depreciation expense in the initial years, which directly causes early-period profit margins to decline. The “declining-balance” refers to the asset’s book value or carrying value (the asset’s cost minus its accumulated depreciation). Recall that the asset’s book value declines each time that depreciation is credited to the related contra asset account Accumulated Depreciation. In this example, the depreciation will continue until the credit balance in Accumulated Depreciation reaches $10,000 (the equipment’s depreciable cost).


If, for example, an asset is purchased on 1 December and the financial statements are prepared on 31 December, the depreciation expense should only be charged for one month. Because the equipment has a useful life of only five years it is expected to quickly lose value in the first few years of use – making DDB depreciation the most appropriate method of depreciation for this type of asset. Consider a widget manufacturer that purchases a $200,000 packaging machine with an estimated salvage value of $25,000 and a useful life of five years. Under the DDB depreciation method, the equipment loses $80,000 in value during its first year of use, $48,000 in the second and so on until it reaches its salvage price of $25,000 in year five. While some accounting software applications have fixed asset and depreciation management capability, you’ll likely have to manually record a depreciation journal entry into your software application.

All such information is provided solely for convenience purposes only and all users thereof should be guided accordingly. Note that the double-declining multiplier yields a depreciation expense for only four years. Also, note that the expense in the fourth year is limited to the amount needed to reduce the book value to the $20,000 salvage value. In the second year, depreciation is calculated in a regular way by multiplying the remaining book value of $36,000 ($40,000 — $4,000) by 40%.

Units-of-Activity Depreciation

In our example, the depreciation expense will continue until the amount in Accumulated Depreciation reaches a credit balance of $92,000 (cost of $100,000 minus $8,000 of salvage value). Common sense requires depreciation expense to be equal to total depreciation per year, without first dividing and then multiplying total depreciation per year by the same number. There are several methods for calculating depreciation, generally based on either the passage of time or the level of activity (or use) of the asset. For example, assume your business purchases a delivery vehicle for $25,000. Vehicles fall under the five-year property class according to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). The straight-line depreciation percentage is, therefore, 20%—one-fifth of the difference between the purchase price and the salvage value of the vehicle each year.

Theoretically, this makes sense because the gains and losses from assets sold before and after the composite life will average themselves out. The straight-line depreciation is calculated by dividing the difference between assets pagal double declining balance method sale cost and its expected salvage value by the number of years for its expected useful life. On the other hand, double declining balance decreases over time because you calculate it off the beginning book value each period.

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